Agraphia inability to write. Akinetic mutism Also known as a persistent vegetative state. The patient neither moves or speaks with volition and is unaware of internal or external stimuli. Such persons may appear to be awake but are not truly conscious. Akinetic seizure a momentary loss of muscle tone throughout the body resulting in falls. Alar ligament ligaments that limit the rotation of the head. Two strong bands that pass from the posterolateral part of the tip of the dens of the axis upward and laterally to the condyles of the occipital bone. Alexia inability to read, usually due to lesions of the visual cortex.
Adduction describes the movement of a limb toward or cervical beyond the midline of the body. Adduction is illustrated by moving the hands apart and then clapping them together or crossing them at the arms. Adduction is the opposite of abduction. Adipose tissue fatty tissue. Adjustment disorder a maladaptive reaction to an identifiable psychological stressor. May be severe, but is usually resolved by therapeutic intervention groei or by the passage of time. Affect The emotional tone characteristic of each persons presentation. Affect is depressed in dysthymia, elevated in elation. Affect may be described as flat, blunted, or inappropriate to the situation. Afferent sensory pathway proceeding toward the central nervous sysem from the peripheral receptor organs. Agnosia a defect in the ability to recognize and intepret compex stimuli caused by lesion in the angular gyrus.
movement should be voluntary. Of recent onset (hours, days, or a few weeks). Acute care, care provided during the very early stages following injury, including surgery and intensive care. Focus is on the patient becoming medically stable. Acute rehabilitation program Primary emphasis on the early rehabilitation phase which usually begins as soon as a person is medically stable. The program is designed to be comprehensive and based in a medical facility with a typical length of stay of 2-3 months. Treatment is provided by an identifiable team in a designated unit. Adl activities of daily living. Routine activities carried out for personal hygiene and health (including bathing, dressing feeding) and for operating a household.
Chapter 3: orthopedic and liverpoolfc darm neurologic procedures
The opposite of abduction is adduction. Abcess, a localized collection of pus in a cavity, formed by the disintegration of tissues. Absence epilepsy, a type of epilepsy that occurs especially in children and is manifested by a sudden momentary loss of cosciousness with minimal motor manifestations. Acetylcholine, reversible acetic acid ester of choline that serves as a neurotransmitter at the myoneural junction, in parasympathetic ganglia, and at parasympathetic nerve endings. Acoustic nerve, the eighth cranial nerve or nervi vestibulocochlearis, which consists of two sets of fibers, the pars vestibularis nervi octavi and the pars cochlear nervi octavi. It connects to the brain by corresponding roots. A tumor or new growth which involves the acoustic division of the eighth cranial nere, largely made up of nerve cells and nerve fibers.
If active extension of the elbow, which stretches the brachial plexus, produces resistance and increased cervicothoracic radicular pain, the test is said to be positive for a nerve root or spinal cord inflammatory process (eg, brachial neuritis, meningitis). A tuning fork is placed on the vertex of the patient's head and one ear is covered. Because of bone conduction, the covered ear normally hears the tuning fork better than the uncovered ear. If no sound is heard in the covered ear (a positive sign nerve deafness is indicated. Normal sphincter control of the bladder is under the control of the pelvic autonomic nerves. If motor fibers to the sphincter are impaired, incontinency results. If sensory fibers are impaired, distention and dribbling result because the urge to urinate has been diminished (eg, tabes dorsalis). The lower limb of the supine patient is internally rotated and adducted, and then a lasegue's slr test is conducted.
If bending over without support is more painful than with support, it suggests a sacroiliac lesion. Conversely, if bending over with support is more painful than without support, it suggests a lumbosacral or lumbar involvement. A variation of this test is to stand behind the migraine patient and place your hands so that they firmly support the patient's innominates. Some examiners brace a hip against the patient's sacrum when the patient flexes forward to stabilize the pelvis. This vingers maneuver attempts to duplicate the pain pattern in patients with an upper lumbar root lesion. The examiner pulls the prone patient's bent knee upward (posterior) while putting downward (anterior) pressure on the ipsilateral buttock. This test may prove positive even if Lasegue's slr test is negative.
The muscles of the patient's arm are bared and relaxed, and then the arm is flexed at the elbow. The examiner places a thumb over the biceps tendon and makes a light blow with a percussion hammer. Note if the biceps muscle contracts, how quickly it contracts, and with what force. The biceps reflex, a normal response, tests C5C6 segments in terms of integrity of the musculocutaneous nerve. It is hyperactive in the same disorders that cause a hyperactive knee jerk. The sitting patient is asked to raise the arm laterally to a horizontal and slightly backward position, flex the elbow, and laterally flex the neck to the opposite side.
Strümpell s reflex definition of, strümpell s reflex
Transient mechanical occlusion of the vertebral artery may be precipitated by simply turning the head, and this phenomenon is attributed to the compressive action of the longus colli and scalene muscles on the vertebral artery, just before its course through the ivf. A positive sign is exhibited if dizziness, faintness, nausea, nystagmus, vertigo, and/or visual blurring result, indicative of buckling or compression of the vertebral artery. An area of ecchymosis occurring over the course of the posterior auricular artery that develops first near the tip of the mastoid process: an important sign of basilar fracture. The patient in the sitting position attempts to extend each leg one at a time followed by an attempt to extend both legs. The sign is positive if backache or sciatic pain is increased or the maneuver is impossible. In disc involvements, extending both legs will usually increase spinal and sciatic discomfort.
This sign is positive if a patient with a history of lower trunk discomfort and fatigue is fairly comfortable when sitting with the knees flexed but experiences discomfort in the standing position. It is typically seen in spasticity or contractures of the posterior thigh and/or calf muscles. The examiner notes the position of the umbilicus when the patient tenses the abdominal muscles as in trying to rise from a recumbent position with the hands behind the head. Movement of the umbilicus upward signifies paralysis or weakness of the lower abdominal muscles. If the umbilicus moves right, weakness of left abdominal muscles is indicated. If the umbilicus moves left, weakness of the right abdominal muscles is indicated. A positive sign points to segments T6 T10 such as in spinal cord or vertebral injury, disease, or tumor; eg, vertebral tumor, anterior poliomyelitis, transverse myelitis, compression fracture, multiple sclerosis, or disc protrusions. The standing male patient, with feet about 1215 inches apart, flexes forward with the examiner holding the patient's belt at the back.
The patient is then told to elevate the leg of the same side with the knee extended, forming about a 45 angle at the hip. In this position, the examiner's fingers can readily palpate the now tensed psoas muscle. Similar palpation should be made bilaterally for comparison. In suspected cases of chronic appendicitis, baron found that the right psoas muscle was frequently hypersensitive to pressure. Even in definition the healthy individual, a tensed psoas may be tender, but when the appendix or right ovary is involved, the tenderness is more marked on the right side. It is also important to realize that because the psoas is covered by peritoneum it can be painful in the presence of sacrospinal and gluteal myalgias; in lumbar, lumbosacral, and iliosacral arthrosis; and sometimes in sciatica. The sitting patient is asked to slowly but firmly rotate the head first to one side and then to the other.
Strumpell sign- An alternative to babinskis sign
A lessening or lack of the cerebellaire patellar tendon reflex in sciatica. The patient is instructed to walk several steps straight forward and then backward with the eyes closed. In cases of internal ear disease (eg, labyrinthitis the patient will bend to one side while walking forward and then to the other side when walking backward. If the patient leans to only one side when walking either forward or backward, it signifies an ipsilateral cerebellar lesion. The sitting patient is asked to raise the arm laterally to a horizontal position, flex the elbow, and then place the open palm on the top of the head. This maneuver should relieve traction on the ipsilateral lower cervical roots and offer relief of nerve root irritation in cases of a brachial plexus syndrome. The patient is placed supine, relaxed, and instructed to breath deeply. The examiner's fingers are placed on poupart's ligament and pressure is made in the direction of the psoas muscle.
The foot should always be warm before testing. With the patient prone or supine, stroking the sole of the relaxed foot with a moderately sharp instrument will usually result in rapid plantar flexion of the toes. Normally, all the toes plantar flex. When the small toes fan in plantar flexion and the great toe simultaneously moves upward in strong dorsiflexion, a positive babinski sign is elicited. A positive sign is normal in children up to 5 years; in adults, it is indicative of pyramidal tract involvement in cerebral edema, brain injuries, meningitis, and after the use of morphine. Depending on the cause, the sign may be bilateral or unilateral as in the case of hemiplegia. If the plantar reflex is in any way abnormal, it should be recorded even if a typical Babinski sign is not present. A babinski plantar response cyste is the most constant of all pathologic reflexes.
Strümpell s sign - wikipedia
We have compiled the definitions of brandwonden over 500 different terms used in brain and spinal cord injury treatment and rehabilitation. Understanding the terms used in the first step in becoming an effective part of the treatment team. Index : to go directly to a section, click on a letter below. A, b c, d e, f g, h i, j k,. N o, p q, r s, t u, v w, x y, z abducens nerve. Supplies lateral rectus, an extrinsic muscle of the eye. Abduction, movement of a limb away from the midline of the body. Clap your hands together and then move them away from each other; this is abduction.